38Speasum concerns are enormous for people, especially those who live along the Matapono River. In Tumurora, stories about the dangers of the mine still appear in village workshops, especially when it comes to threats to downstream communities. One proof they pointed out was the increasing sedimentation of the river. Erosion from soil furnishing by mining at Gold Ridge has led to increased sedimentation and flood diversion in their vegetable gardens and cocoa plantations. This results in damage, especially to cocoa trees and vegetable gardens along river beds. As shown in Figure 3 below, the increase in sedimentation subsequently overshadowed the flooding in cocoa and coconut plantations, and after the groundwater level remained high for months, huge areas of cocoa were destroyed, affecting one of the most important sources of income for many families in Tumurora. 48The most notable problem of migration, movement and resettlement lies in the tensions that have arisen against it. This applies more to the moving village of Lunga than to Obo Obo. The settlers of Gold Ridge and the inhabitants of the areas where they were resettled (Belaha/Malango) share the same language, Kastom and most share belonging to the same “lineage” or clan.

In fact, the original residents receive cash benefits from their parents and the administrators of the Gold Ridge mine, and many young people from Belaha and Malango were employed by the mining company. Despite these similarities and ties, resettlement has led to disagreements and conflicts with host communities. Stewart and Strathern (2005) argued that domination or submission in new environments is a common theme of diaspora in the Pacific Islands throughout history. It specifies that the decision-making process must be clearly provided for in the joint venture agreement. Even if the majority party can have control over most decisions, the minority party will likely want to participate in important decisions (for example. B approval of budgets and calls for funds, approval of a bankable feasibility study, taking on debts and commissioning of a property) so that super-majority requirements can be introduced. In structures where the roles of majority and minority parties may change (e.g. B, where access provisions may apply), the definition of quorum and minority party rights may be difficult to negotiate. Licence agreements generally include inspection mechanisms and access to information so that the licensee can verify that the royalty has been correctly calculated and that deductions have been authorized, including the right to request verifications. These agreements also limit the owner`s ability to sell them without the licensee`s consent, particularly in jurisdictions where royalties cannot be registered on the property, in which case the buyer of the property will likely be required to adhere to and be bound by the license agreement. In addition, the nature of certain rights – whether commercial or social rights, as in a joint venture, or concession-based mining rights, such as in an option or licence agreement – can change dramatically from common law to civil law systems. In addition, legislation may replace and take precedence over certain contractual provisions in civil courts, for example .B.

in matters considered to be in the public interest. As with licensing agreements, streaming agreements carry certain risks that need to be assessed. One of them is the possibility that the production is not or insufficient, which prevents the seller from delivering the volume of product as expected. Another risk is market volatility, as oscillations can hurt the profit margins initially sought by the buyer and ultimately make production and therefore streaming impractical. .