In Sweden, around 90% of employees are covered by collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017). [5] [6] Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden has no legislation on minimum wages or laws to extend collective agreements to disorganized employers. Unorganized employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many are not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to companies and workers covered by collective agreements. [7] In the Common Law, Ford v A.U.E.F. [1969],[8] the courts once decided that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act of 1971, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s cabinet), provided that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause explained otherwise. After the death of the Heath government, the law was rescinded to reflect the tradition of the UK`s labour relations policy of legally refraining from workplace disputes. Collective agreements are signed for certain periods, usually between two and four years. A collective agreement is binding both for the employers` organisation and its members, on the one hand, and for the trade union and its members, on the other.